Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), world’s largest sanitation program, was launched in 2014 on the Birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. One of the two sub-missions of SBM; monitored through Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. Through it, India is implementing the world’s largest collective behaviour movement for rural sanitation.
Objectives of Swachh Bharat Mission
- Main aim of this mission is to transform country to Swachh Bharat by 2019
- Improving cleanliness in rural areas and making villages clean and sanitised
- Accelerating sanitation practices amongst rural communities of India, simply spreading Sanitation Education amongst rural population in India
Methodologies Adopted for Swachh Bharat Mission
- Focus on verification of Open Defecation Free status by monitoring actual toilet usage while earlier it was on basis of counting number of toilets built.
- Focus is also on counting number of Open Defecation Free villages
- Using Solid and Liquid Waste Management(SLWM) and Fecal Sludge Management(FSM) technologies for better management of waste in India
Steps Taken by Modi Government for Swachh Bharat Mission
- Modi government provided funding for construction of Individual Household Latrine(IHHL)
- Modi government provided Rs. 12,000 and state government provided Rs. 9,000 or Rs. 3,000. Totalling Rs. 21,000 or Rs. 15,000 were given to beneficiaries for the construction of toilets
- Funding was provided specifically to local Gram Panchayats for construction of community toilets
Achievements of Swachh Bharat Mission
- One of main achievement of Swachh Bharat Mission is behavioural change in society via different Behaviour Change Communication(BCC) activities.
- Involving community into the mission had a huge impact and have promoted sanitization at large scale
- This mission turned out to be massive mass mobilisation exercise with the help of various NGOs/communities which initiated special drives to improve the general cleanliness in the villages
- National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey(NARSS) 2018-2019 conducted by Independent Verification Agency(IVA) under World Bank support reported that 93.1% of Indian households were found to have access to toilets
- From this survey, It was concluded that over 96% of people who had access to toilets actually was using it
- From this survey, Minimal litter and Minimal Stagnant water was observed in 95.4% of villages
Way Forward for Swachh Bharat Mission
Although the SBM-G seems successful so far as per the data provided, the fact that there are still a large number of rural households without access to safe and affordable sanitation facilities, this important aspect needs to be tackled on war footing to achieve the SBM-G full target by October 2019.
Other independent study conducted last year reported that the SBM-G routinely used coercion and threats to achieve toilet construction it should be changed and should be based on collective behavioural change rather than achieved through any forceful means.